Wednesday, November 30, 2011


date: Tue, 21 Jan 2003 11:18:37 -0000
from: Dan Tapster
subject: Draft script for climate change
to: "''"

Dear Dr Hulme,
Thanks for taking the time to talk to me this morning. As discussed, I'm sending you the
latest copy of the script for this programme. It would be great for me if you could read
it and let me know your thoughts.

My background is zoology, so I'm no climate change expert so there may be errors or
serious omissions in there which would be very useful to know about. I'd be grateful if
you could send me your hourly/daily rate as a script consultant so that I can budget your
time and also advise you how long we can afford for you to help!!

At this stage I'm guessing that you will certainly question the sea-level rising by 55
metres if Antarctica melts. Remember that this is about the future of Britain - not just
the short term but also the long term (hence the piece about the arrival of the next ice

After getting your initial thoughts it would be great if I could visit the Centre and meet
various people whose advice is essential, but I can certainly arrange this through
Please do keep this script confidential for the time being!


Last changed: 19 December 2002
Dan Tapster



Waves crash against the Scottish coast.

Aerials over coastline

Pick out Presenter walking across barren looking landscape

Crash into Presenter

Images from other episodes -

volcanoes spitting fire

Scotland's mountains being created

Tropical seas rising and falling graphic

Trees felled

Agriculture spreads over the UK

T/L of motorways and cities being built

Graphics: As Presenter walks and talks on Lewis, roads begin to appear and then houses
and sky-scrapers

I'm on the remote island of Lewis. 8 weeks ago, at the start of this series, this was
where I started my journey through Britain's history. I came here for these. Rocks.
Lewissian gneiss to be more precise. Why are they important? Because they are the oldest
part of the British Isles formed over 3 billion years ago. Even in geological terms,
these are the ultimate survivors. Since they've been deposited they have seen some amazing

They've felt the force of volcanoes erupting across Britain.

They've survived huge mountain ranges - bigger than the Himalayas being pushed up from the
Earth's mantle

They've been hundreds of feet underwater in tropical seas.

And in recent years, they've seen humans change their environment incredibly....

Forests were felled,

Land was turned to agriculture

And the growth of grey.

But what will these great surviving rocks see in the future? Will humans continue to
dominate the changes we see in our landscape? Will somewhere as remote as Lewis eventually
succumb to the growth of grey? In this programme I'm going to find out what the future
holds for our beloved Britain.




Lush spring flower meadow of Gilbert White's house

Locked off Time/lapse of spring flowers erupting into bloom (field has oak and ash trees in
it). Presenter walks into garden.

Brief details of church

Details of windows

NH cutaways.

Back to Presenter in garden

Time/lapse of poppies bursting into flower

Time/lapse of oak trees going to leaf.

Back to Presenter

Feeling of food-chain disruption

Back to Presenter standing by a pond looking at mating frogs and toads

NH footage of toads laying eggs.

Back to Presenter

Images of a sweltering Britain

Library archive of weather reports with suns across the whole of the UK

Flash frames of European stories?

Over 200 years ago, this was the home of one of Britain's most gardeners ever! Gilbert
White. Gilbert was so important because he was pretty much our first ever naturalist. He
spent hours observing the plants and animals around his home. In the church up the road
where he was curate, there are stained glass windows commemorating his life.

Whilst others were polluting the countryside and destroying woodland, Gilbert was
fascinated by it. He took detailed records of all the bird life around, all the mammals
and even the amphibians. Yet he was more important than that. You see he was the first to
observe the timing of the natural world - he was the father of ecology. And since his
initial interest, this has grown into a great and vitally important topic.

But if Gilbert was alive today, he'd be very surprised at how nature's timings have
changed. In fact, it's amazing how things have altered even in my lifetime.

Forty years ago, when I was growing up, I used to pick flowers of dead nettles. They're
beautiful aren't they, so much so that I still enjoy picking them today. But there's a
difference and not just in my age! When I was a lad, I used to hunt for these flowers in
March. Yet here I am sitting amongst them and it's the end of January.

And they're not alone - Poppies are coming in to bloom three weeks earlier then they did
in the 1960s.

This trend is not just restricted to flowers. Trees also seem to be in a rush.

Oak trees are leafing 10 days earlier than they did when I was growing up. Traditionally,
oak and ash have been fairly equal in their quest to leaf first. This led to an old
Lincolnshire saying which was used to predict summer rainfall:

It was said: "If the oak is before the ash, we're in for a splash. If the ash is before the
oak, we're in for a soak." But these days, not many people use the saying at all.

This shift in leafing date has had profound knock-on effects. Now that the oak is winning
the race to sprout leaves first and capture the largest share of sunlight, ash trees are
being out-competed. As a result, the biological make-up of Britain's woodlands is
changing. This in turn has severe implications for other wildlife that depends on the
ash. For instance, there are 68 species of insects that live on ash trees. So the early
flowering of oak will disrupt food chains, food webs and ultimately entire eco-systems.

But it's not just plants that are out of kilter. There's animal evidence too. Take these
frogs. They are their warty cousins, toads, are laying their eggs 10 days earlier than
30 years ago.

So what does this all mean? Britain is warming up. And if you don't believe the natural
evidence what do the scientists say?

Well meteorologists tell us that the 10 warmest years in the last 100 have all been since
1980 and the 3 warmest years in the past 600 have been post 1990. And this trend is not
restricted to Britain - across Europe, glaciers are retreating fast, cicadas are singing
in the Baltic and summers are getting hotter.


Presenter leaving Gilbert White's garden and walking towards the church (up the famous
zig-zag path)

Jib arm reveals church in background

Details of church

Cut to presenter in church grounds

Details of the Church

Stained glass detail

Presenter walking through church grounds.

Graphics create an element of warmth before vineyards and olive trees and exotic fruit
trees appear. Presenter picks some.

Shots of wine factory with bottles with British labels (e.g. Birmingham Sauvignon Blanc)
on it

So, there is no doubt, global warming is happening. But is this a problem?

Britain's climate has changed incredibly in the recent past as our planet's orbit round the
sun has changed ever so slightly. So frequent have these climate shifts been that looking
back at Britain's climate over the last 2 million years, the only constant thing has been
change. We've been gripped by ice ages as harsh an environment as Antarctica today. Yet
we have also been warmer than today and there seems to have been no bad side-effects.

Around 1000 years ago Britain entered a period of extremely warm weather known as the
Climatic Optimum. This was a time of long summers, short winters and bumper harvests!
Some people became so rich through selling farm produce that they could build buildings
like this church - St Mary's - the very church that centuries later Gilbert White was to be
curate of.

The intricate details of the carvings show that this 'Climatic Optimum' church was a costly
piece of work.

And the bumper harvests were not always what you might expect. Nearby stained glass
windows show that vineyards were a common feature of the landscape.

So might the same happen again?

If all global warming is going to do is allow us to grow olives and peaches, harvest giant
root vegetables and make wine whilst sunbathing in a Mediterranean-like climate, then
shouldn't we all be celebrating? Just think, after lunch in the sun, we'd all be allowed
to siesta for a couple of hours before going back to work. Then we'd party into the night
sipping the local vino and whilst eating the local olives and sun-dried tomatoes.

Maybe British wine will become world famous


Double doors to Church are flung open and Presenter with parasol steps out into the
sweltering sunshine.

Graphics change the background to one where everything is dry, dusty and dying.

Beech tree woodland

Graphics of beech, birch and spruce dying in the heat.

Top of Ben Nevis with beech trees on

Squirrels, deer and badgers eating beech tree nuts. Graphics fade out beech tree leaving
animals looking forlorn!


Presenter in Caledonian pine forest

Ptarmigans, snow buntings, arctic hares ghost out.

Durham's bee-eaters

Poole's egrets

Presenter outside church - graphics unusual birds flying overhear - e.g. screeching macaws.

Graphics of bee-eaters nesting on bank of Thames, parakeets the same and vultures nesting
on St Paul's cathedral


Vulture feeding on heat-killed deer/badger?

Unfortunately, things are not that simple. You see it looks as though temperatures are
going to be higher even than the Climatic Optimum, and this could have very serious
consequences. By 2080 temperatures could have risen by a further 3.5 degrees. Summer
temperatures could peak at a whopping 40°C. Summers would become much, much drier whilst
milder winters will be marked by extreme rainfall. Such changes will have massive effects
on our wildlife.

Beech trees, spruce and birch for instance, will be unable to cope with the warmer
temperatures. They will steadily migrate further north to keep up with the cooler climes
that are their preference. They might end up stuck on the high Cairngorm mountains with
nowhere else to go.

Plants are at the very base of the food chain - ultimately it is plants that fuel entire
eco-systems. Without certain species, animals will suffer. Beech tree nuts are an
important food source for many animals - a whole host of birds, and mammals too -
squirrels, deer and even badgers depends on these seeds. Without them, they will really


Today in Britain we have a number of species which are literally remnants of the ice-age.
Like Caledonian pine. At one point around 12,000 years ago, this species covered great
areas of Britain. Today it holds on in only a handful of locations. Despite intensive
replanting programmes, global warming will cause this wonderful species to become extinct
in our country.

And are other ice-age remnants - the ptarmigans, snow bunting and Arctic hare may also
finally lose their grip.

As the ptarmigans and snow buntings disappear, a whole host of new birds will move in.
This is already happening in parts of Britain. In May 2002, bee-eaters were seen nesting
near Durham - the first time this has ever happened in Britain. And in Poole Harbour in
Dorset there have been resident little egrets for a number of years. These yellow-footed
herons used to be restricted to the tropics, but now they crop up all over parts of
southern England.

If temperatures continue to rise then more exotic birds will move in.

We'll have bee-eaters nesting on the banks of the Thames and more parakeets screeching
around. There'll be crowned cranes dancing and maybe even ostriches roaming our fields.

We could even get vultures circling overhead - certainly there would be a lot for them to
feed on as many of our mammals would over-heat during the summers.


Brief stylised montage of animal invaders which are today very successful - grey
squirrels, mink, American signal crayfish, the Chinese Mitten crab, the sika deer and
the pigeon, etc.

Presenter crawling through extremely dense - almost impenetrable vegetation:

Graphics pull out to very high altitude to show that Presenter is in Wales.

Crash back in to aerials of 'knotweed forest'

Time/lapse (to music) of - both outdoors and through roads.

Presenter walks into shed

Possible flash frame of library footage of Presenter talking about ornamental knotweeds on
Gardener's World.

T/L of knotweed growing into shed culminating in shed explosion!

Graphics of knotweed growing even faster and spreading across the whole of Britain -
including over its roads and cities.

Cut aways of seeds blowing across UK

Graphics of famous landmarks becoming overrun with knotweed - e.g. Stone Henge, the Angel
of the North, Cheddar Gorge, St. Abbas Giant, Tintun Abbey.

Aerials of London as all green areas turn to knotweed.

Graphics as M1 turns to knotweed. And Heathrow too.

Knotweed office representation

Global warming, then, will provide the opportunity for new species to invade Britain,
replacing our natives. Invading species aren't new. There have been immigrant plants and
animals arriving on our shores since Neolithic times - grey squirrels and mink are two of
the most famous examples. But global warming could change an old invader in a very
dangerous way indeed.

With vegetation as dense as this you might think that I'm in the Amazon! It's so thick
that it is almost impossible for me to move. But I'm not deep in the heart of the jungle,
I'm just outside Swansea!

In this part of Wales, Japanese knotweed thrives. It spreads incredibly fast and soon
forms massive aggregations - some over 25,000 square metres - where it simply chokes all
other plants to death..

It was introduced from Asia to Europe Asia in the mid nineteenth century as an ornamental
and fodder plant. But it spread and it did so because it has such an extraordinary growth

And it can even grow up through roads and into buildings. It causes such a problem now
that you can actually be prosecuted for helping it spread.

Given the vast swathes of land that it covers, what is most amazing is that it is sterile
- it only spreads vegetatively.. You see, it is a dioecious plant which means that you
need male and female plants for sexual reproduction to occur, yet in Britain and Europe we
only have female plants. However, the real risk with knotweed is that it will somehow
hybridise with another plant and then reproduce sexually. In the past, I've encouraged
people to plant other exotic knotweeds in their gardens and these are exactly the
candidates that could hybridise. And global warming will increase that likelihood so I'm
going to dig mine up now!

Areas that are already desolate except for knotweed would begin to expand and expand and at
an alarming rate.

But the problems would not end there. Knotweed seeds would be blown up across the whole of
the British Isles and wherever they germinated, it would not be long before knotweed
thrived. In fact, knotweed would grow everywhere.

Even our cities would not be safe - all our parks would be dense thickets

It could even cause havoc to our transport system as it employs its ability to grow through

At the moment, Swansea City Council employs the one and only 'knotweed officer' in the
country. Maybe - because of climate change he will need lead a team of millions!


Presenter walking through the National Forest

Presenter fumbles in his pocket and brings out mounted beetle specimens.

NH footage of Asian long-horn beetle life-cycle with sync intercut

Graphics of familiar forests becoming stands of dead trees.

Street trees die out.

Famous trees die out too - like the Royal Mile near Buckingham Palace, Windsor Great
Park, trees at Lord Cricket Ground, churchyards, etc.

Mobile phone tree masts are all that remain!

Knotweed begins to creep up the mobile mast.

Global warming will also allow new invaders to colonise warmer Britain. This combined with
the massive increase in global travel and trade means that invading species will increase.
And there is an animal which is capable of changing the landscape as much as a fertile
Japanese knotweed could At the moment Britain is too cold for it, but if things change,
the National Forest where 30 million trees have been planted could be particularly
vulnerable. So what is the culprit? Well I have one just with me.

It's the Asian longhorn beetle. Originally from China it has smuggled its way around the
world bored into wooden crates. Once it arrives, it climbs out and has massive effects on
the landscape. How? It kills trees. Females will chew through tree bark with their massive
jaws to lay 60 or so eggs.

Once these hatch the larvae do the damage by boring deep into the wood which will
eventually kill the tree. It is not fussy which trees it goes for. So far it has not
reached Britain, but if it along with other pests - like the 8-toothed spruce bark beetle
or diseases such as the mysterious sudden oak death do reach Britain, their effects could
be catastrophic.

Our trees would be lost.

But we would not become a treeless country. Those mobile phone tree masts would certainly
be impervious!!

And knotweed forests would grow so fast that they would not be threatened. Soon they'd be
clambering over the mobile phone masts!


Back to Presenter at Church:

Graphics of vineyards again. This time they wilt.

Time/lapse of wilting crops

Graphics of plagues of locusts going though British farms.

Presenter on Church tower looking over bushfires

Details of fires

Graphics of forest fires - including material shot from satellites

Graphics of people going about their daily business as places nearby burn.

Presenter back on church tower - the ground begins to crack up and the church begins to
crumble. Presenter wobbles?

Famous buildings in London collapse.

So global warming will change our plants, it will change our animals and it could pave the
way for new invaders which could have devastating effects on our landscape. But the
problems would not end there. Life in the extra hot Britain would be tough.

Long summer droughts would mean that crops would fail repeatedly - even vineyards and
sunflowers! If vineyards can't cope than wheat and barley, potatoes and sugar beet will
have no chance!

We will develop drought resistant crops but they won't be able to cope with a new threat -

Long summer droughts will also mean that, like today in Australia, bush fires are a common

Forest fires cause billions of pounds worth of damage every year in the States and in
Australia - we too could see fires burning over massive areas - so large that they can even
be seen from space.

Like residents of Sydney, we would have to get used to them....

Clay, the very material that London, Bristol and other great urban areas are built on
will begin to dry and crack. This could be so severe that houses could start to crumble.


Presenter in church grounds with everything normal again until off-camera rain machine
begins drowning him in water:

Shots of heavy rain, and archive of floods over Britain

Back to Presenter, rain stops but lo and behold an off camera wind machine kicks in!

Archive of hurricanes.

Graphics of fallen trees all over Britain. Knotweed remains unaffected.

Violently rough seas

Bulldozers working shale beaches (Martin Smith).

Graphics has huge wave coming over the wall.

But it's not going to be one long summer for us. Outside of the summer droughts, Britain
will experience greater extremes of weather. Winters could be very wet indeed - prompting
great flooding over much of the country - worse than anything we have seen over recent

Moreover, it seems likely that we will also have much greater wind storms - both tornadoes
and if Britain's seas get really warmer - hurricanes too could become more common!

Trees will be blown down all across the UK

And our seas could experience some of the roughest weather around. We will have to improve
our sea defences to cope with these great swells of the future. Bulldozing shale will not
be good enough.


Presenter in the cairngorms, skiing towards camera. He parallel stops in front of camera
and pulls up his goggles.

Presenter skis off. Mix to grass skiing tournament in France.

Melting icicles leads torrents flowing which eventually leads to Graphics map of sea-level
rise (mostly pinched from programme 3 - except the higher sea level rise).

Crash zoom into various locations - e.g. Water gushing down Channel Tunnel, Thames Barrier
overwhelmed, etc (could use archive flood news footage).

Graphics of new coastline with submerged Britain

Presenter on top of Church tower again. As he talks water fills up everything except the
last bit of the tower.

Graphics of new outline of Britain

Yorkshire Moors becomes metropolis

Graphics of University Boat Race as they row past towers only. Seals and whales are
nearby. They row past a jetty with submarine tours. Follow underwater to see tour of
submerged London.

Graphics of Canary wharf being a new bird rock.

Today millions of us enjoy skiing all over the world, and Scotland certainly has some
great pistes to offer. But we better had make the most of it since pretty soon there might
be no snow.

Global warming will certainly jeopardise the skiing industry since snow and glaciers will
melt fast. Fortunately, for those of us who enjoy hurtling down mountains at breakneck
speed, ski manufacturers are already designing grass skis for our enjoyment!

But it is not just ice on the mountain tops which will thaw, ice in the Arctic may melt
too which could have devastating effects.

Trillions of gallons of water which had been locked up as ice will be released into the
world's oceans. The sea levels could rise by nearly 1 metre. This will be devastating for
Britain. Once the Thames Barrier is overcome, Soho will be flooded within a matter of
minutes. Water will pour down the Channel Tunnel. The new outline of Britain shows how
many areas will be affected.

But things could be even worse that this. There is evidence that the currently stable ice
sheet in Antarctica has melted in the past. If this begins to melt then global sea levels
could rise by a devastating 60 metres!

This would change our country immensely. Britain's new outline would be unrecognisable.

It would disrupt everything - there'd be no London, no Manchester, no Edinburgh, no
Bristol. Instead there'd be thriving commercial centres on are uplands. Certainly where I
grew up on Ilkley Moor, things would be very different.

No doubt those hardy Oxbridge rowers would still try to keep up their traditions.

And entrepreneurs would lead tours around a submerged London

The spires and towers which stuck out of the water would not be deserted, they would soon
become home to a multitude of birds. Like Bass Rock, Canary wharf could become a vast
gannetry. And in the new hotter temperatures it might even be canaries which roost there!


Double doors of the Church swing open again to reveal Presenter, dressed as before.

It starts to snow.

Graphics of Arctic melting and graphics of gulf stream stopping.

Presenter back in snowy scene. Sync could be done this winter in Scotland?

Images from Churchill

Polar bears trundle past.

Presenter in London, standing by the side of the Thames

Graphics of Thames freezing over. Presenter climbs down onto jetty and 'walks across
frozen Thames'.

Cut-aways of appropriate images.

Snow-ploughs going along roads

Country houses become blanketed in snow.

Graphics of trees and woods dying in the snow

Red fox scavenging in the snow

Presenter in Caledonian Pine forest in snow. Graphics cause it to grow to the horizon.

But skiers and snowboarders needn't hang up their boots just yet and dive enthusiasts
should not open shops in London. For there is another scenario associated with global
warming that would prevent this wholesale warming and flooding, but would have just as
pronounced affects on our landscape and natural history. Perversely, global warming could
actually make Britain colder.

As temperatures continue to increase the Arctic ice sheets will melt. But in doing so a
massive amount of cold water will be released into the northern Atlantic. This cold water
will completely disrupt the ocean currents, forcing the warm Gulf Stream current further
south or even halt its flow altogether. Ominously, this great current has decreased by
20% off northern Scotland since 1950, suggesting the driving force behind the Gulf Stream
flow is already in decline.

It is impossible to underestimate the value of the Gulf Stream- in fact it provides us with
as third as much energy as the sun! Without it we would have a climate similar to other
places on Britain's latitude like Churchill in Canada.

Churchill is very cold indeed. The average temperature in January is minus 28 degrees
Celsius, in June a mere 12. In fact the yearly average is an incredible minus 7! Clearly
it's a hit with polar bears.

But again, do we need to worry since we've been colder in the past too. And I'm not
talking ice-ages here, but colder periods that have lasted a couple of hundred years. In
fact when the climatic Optimum was over, it was soon replaced by the Little Ice Age.
Winters- such as that of 1739 were so severe that the Thames froze over.

Vast ice fairs were set up on the frozen river. Booths selling the likes of brandy balls,
ginger breads, black puddings, plum cakes, pancakes and glasses of hot ale with spices and
wine. Printing presses were popular too, selling certificates and poems commemorating the
novelty of printing on the Thames. But it wasn't all fun. IN February of that year it's
estimated that over 20,000 people in London were killed by the cold. (CHECK)

How would the rest of Britain fair if the Gulf Stream stopped?

Our roads would regularly be blocked by vast winter snow drifts - we would need to increase
the number of snow ploughs by ten fold at least.

More people would move to the cities for their artificially raised temperatures.

And what of our animals? Nearly all the plants and animals that we have today are not
adapted to the cold. Most would die off. The adaptable red fox would scavenge many of
those killed.

If Britain cooled through global warming than the Caledonian Pine Forests would in all
likelihood greatly expand their ranges once again. It would certainly be very different.


Presenter back in church grounds at night..

Cut-aways of massive volcanic clouds of dust.

Presenter star gazing

Graphics of asteroid hurtling towards Earth.

Graphics of impact in Britain

Graphics of Dark Britain

Back to Presenter

Although temperatures would drop by up to 10 degrees, this would not be like an ice-age.
For that to happen, there would need to be some sort of trigger.

The coldest winter in the Little Ice Age was that of 1816. This was in fact the coldest
single year on record in many places in Europe and North America.

The reason being that the previous year a massive volcanic eruption in Indonesia had thrown
vast plumes of smoke and dust into the sky reducing the warming effect of the sun.
Alarmingly this could happen again, not with a volcano, but a meteor.

On March 16, 2880 an asteroid 3,300 feet in diameter, weighing over one billion tonnes
could crash into our planet.

It is travelling at a speed around 9.5 miles per second. If it does hit our planet, the
energy released could be as much as 44,800 megatons of TNT. If it impacts on land it will
create a crater around 14 miles in diameter, with a blast radius of intense damage of
around 190 miles. Massive dust clouds would be thrown up and Britain would be plunged into
darkness for years.

This vast dust cloud and the dent in the world's orbit could be enough to swing the balance
and send us into a real ice-age.....


Graphics of Britain becoming frozen over. New Ice age then carves Britain - familiar
landmarks are obliterated - e.g. Angel of the North, Blackpool tower, Alton towers, The
London Eye, etc.

Graphics of the appropriate sea level changes (from Programme 3).

Polar bears, Arctic foxes, musk ox walking across ice sheet with famous landmarks
sticking out in the background.

Presenter with reindeer in snow

Graphics of mammoths walking through Britain.

If this occurred then Britain would be changed forever. The powerful ice sheets and
glaciers would completely recarve our landscape. Certainly nothing that we have built
would be immune.

And our coastline would change immeasurably since global sea levels would fall and fall.
Once again we would be joined to the continent and new animals would venture onto our

Reindeer would once again thrive in Britain. Those people brave enough to stay rather than
head south, would probably end up farming them.

And who knows, by then scientists may even have developed the technology to re-create
mammoths from their DNA trapped in frozen specimens. Maybe they too would grace our shores
once again.


Presenter walking along Ilkley Moor on a summer's day

Flash frames of asteroid, tidal wave, female Alan

Short section with some of the most dramatic graphics sequences of mountain
building/volcanoes/floods from other programmes.

Short section on the most beautiful landscapes of modern Britain (pinched from other

Back to Presenter:

Aerials away

Much of this programme has been speculation - no one can know for sure what the future
holds for Britain. But global warming is a fact, it is happening. What is debatable is
how much of it is down to us and what its effects will be. An asteroid will hit our planet
at some point and massive tidal waves could also strike Britain. Mystery pollutants could
even turn us all female.

Ilkley Moor is where I grew up and it is also the place I started my journey of discovery
of the history of the British landscape. In this series, I've learned a great deal about
our past and the over-riding message is that an examination of our ancient past tells us
that the planet and this small piece of land that comprises Great Britain always has and
always will be in a state of constant change. Maybe global warming is simply the next
change that has arisen sooner because of our activities. Whether we can do anything about
it remains to be seen since from our incredible history we should remember that there are
forces infinitely more powerful than ourselves operating on the planet - the forces of

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